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The arrival of Hakkas in the south (2)
The arrival of Hakkas in the south (2)
Ying Zheng (嬴政), the First Emperor of Qin (秦始皇帝), died in 210BC and
was succeeded by his second son Ying Hu Hai (嬴扶蘇) succeeded him as the
Second Emperor (秦二皇帝).
The Second Emperor was an idiot, unable to control the situation. Riots
broke out every where throughout the empire because the vast majority of
the people had suffered too much under the severe rigidity of the Qin
government. People were deserting the Qin Government en masse. Everywhere,
soldiers were mutining against their superiors and the authorities.
The remnant aristocrats living in those States, which were formerly
conquered by Qin, began to revive their former States and established
their own Governments.
Xiang Yu (項羽), Liu Bang (劉邦), Chen Sheng (陳勝) and Wu Guang (吳廣),
each one of them organised armed bands with the intention to overthrow
the Qin Authories. Within a short period the centralized Qin Empire
collapsed in 206BC. The following year the civil war between Liu Pang
and Xiang Yu broke out. It lasted for five years and eventually Xiang Yu
was defeated by Liu Pang who established the Han Dynasty (漢朝) and
proclaimed himself the Han Emperor (漢高祖) in 202BC.
In 208BC, during the reign of the Second Emperor of Qin, the governor of
Nan Hai Prefecture (南海郡 present day Guangzhou 廣州 city in Guangdong
province 廣東省), Ren Xiao (任囂), died of illness. Zhao Tuo (趙佗), the
officer in charge of Long Chuan (龍川 in Guangdong province), succeeded
Ren Xiao as the new governor of Nan Hai Prefecture.
During the period of the civil war between Xiang Yu and Liu Bang, Zhao Tuo
invaded and absorbed the Prefectures of Gui Lin (桂林 present day Gui Lin
county in Guangxi province 廣西省) and Xiang (象present day Honai city
河內市 in Vietnam). Zhao Tuo unilaterally declared himself as the King of
Nan Yue Kingdom (南越國王). (NOTE: 1998 the Chinese archaeologists
excavated his palace in Guangzhou city in Guangdon province). Zhao Tuo
was from Zhen Ding in Hebei province (河北真定人).
In 196BC Liu Bang sent an official Lu Gu (陸賈) as ambassador to the
Kingdom of Nan Yue. Since Zhao Tuo did not want to be in antagonism with
such a mighty empire as the Han Empire he accepted Lu Gu as the
representative of Liu Bang gracefully. Liu Bang bestowed upon Zhao Tuo
the title of King of the Nan Yue Kingdom and in return Zhao Tuo agreed to
accept that his Kingdom was under the jurisdiction of the Han Empire.
Liu Bang died in April 195BC and was succeeded by his son Liu Ying
After the death of Liu Bang, his wife Empress Gao (高后) advised the Han
Court to stop selling iron to Zhao Tuo. When the Han Court complied with
her idea Zhao Tuo was furious. Zhao Tuo suspected that the plan for not
selling him the iron was devised by the King of Chang Sha (長沙王
which is the present day capital of Hunan province 湖南省).
In 183BC Zhao Tuo declared that he was Emperor Wu Di of Nan Yue
(南越武帝) and he sent troops to attack Chang Sha. The Han Court
dispatched an army under the command of General Lu Lu Hou (陸盧侯)
encounter Zhao Tuo, but the Han troops failed to stop Zhao Tuo who
occupied a large of the Han territory. However, when Empress Gao died
in 180BC Zhao Tu abolished his titleship of Emperor of Nan Yue Kingdom and
reverted to his original title of King of Nan Yue Kingdom.
After Zhao Tuo's death he was succeeded by his grandson Zhao Hu (趙胡).
In 112BC, Zhao Xing (趙興), the son of Zhao Hu, was the King of Nan Yue
who was requested by the Han Court ambassador, An Guo shao Ji (安國少季),
to visit the Han Emperor Wu Di (漢武帝) who agreed to lift the ban of
selling iron to Nan Yue Kingdom. However, Lu Jia (呂嘉), the Prime
Minister of Nan Yue sabotged the plan by creating a rioting by the
soldiers. The Han Emperor Wu Di was angry and he dispatched a large
punitive force of 100,00 strong, under the command of Lu Bo-de (路博德
and Yang Po (楊僕) to attack the Kingdom of Nan Yue. The punitive troops
marched into the present day provinces of Guangdong, Guangxi and North
Vietnam in five different routes. Within a year the Kingdom of Nan Yue
was crushed by the Han forces.
The three Prefectures of Nan Hai, Xiang and Gui Lin were subdivided into
nine Prefectures which were Dan Er (儋耳), Zhu Ya (珠崖), Nan Hai (南海),
Cang Wu (蒼梧), Yu Lin (郁林), He Pu (合浦) Jiao Zhi (交趾), Jiu Zhen
(九真) and Ri Nan (日南).
The soldiers of this large punitive force did not return to their
homelands in the north. Instead they sent for their families from the
north. Knowing that the land in the south was fertle many northerners
emigrated to the south. Thus new seeds of Hakka were added to the south
from these soldiers and the new settlers who began to call themselves Han
P/s will talk about Min Yue (閩粵) in the nest message.