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毛澤東自傳 The autobiography of Mao Zedong

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毛澤東自傳 The autobiography of Mao Zedong

Postby chungyn » Thu Dec 07, 2017 1:05 am

毛澤東自傳 The autobiography of Mao Zedong

(10)A
長征 - 通過大草地 - Across the Great Grasslands

平安地渡過了大渡河以後, 紅軍達到了比較自由的四川西部, 那裏碉堡制度還沒有

完成, 而且作戰的發動權大部分操在他們自己的手裏. 不過戰爭以外的困難, 還是

沒有過去. 還有六千里的行軍, 中間有七個大山嶺, 戰在他們的面前.

在大渡河之北, 紅軍爬上了二萬尺高度的大雪山, 從空氣稀薄的山頂上, 向西望去

, 可以看見一片帶雪的山峰 -- 即西藏. 已經是六月天氣了, 在低地上是很熱的,
可是當他們爬過大雪山的時候, 這些服裝破爛血液稀薄的南方人, 不習慣於高空的

地帶, 有許多竟因禁不住風霜的打擊而死亡了. 更難攀登的是荒無人煙的炮銅崗,
在這上面, 他們實在等於開闢了自己的道路, 他們砍下長的竹桿, 放在彎彎曲曲的

深與腰齊的爛泥地上, 鋪成一條過道. 毛澤東告訴我: "在這個山峰上, 一軍團中損

失了三分之二的運輸牲口. 好幾百倒了下來, 便永遠不再爬起來了].

他們繼續往上爬著. 第二個是邛徠山脊, 損失更多的人和牲口. 然後他們登上那可

愛的夢筆山和打鼓山, 這兩座山又奪去了他們不少的生命. 最後, 在一九三五年的

七月二十日, 他們進入很富足的四川北部毛兒蓋區域, 而和第四方面軍及松潘蘇維

埃區域取得了聯絡. 在這裏他們終於停留下來長期休息了一下, 清算一下他們損失

的數目, 改編一下他們的隊伍. 第一, 第三, 第五, 第八和第九軍團, 在九個月以

前, 從江西出發的時候, 人數有九萬, 現在能夠在斧頭鐮刀旗幟下集合起來的, 不

過四萬五千人. 這所缺少的人數並非全是損失的, 逃跑的或是被俘的, 紅軍作為防

禦戰略的一部分, 在湖南, 貴州等出前進的路線後面, 留下了許多小股的正規軍隊

, 叫他們在農民中組織游擊隊伍, 以便在敵軍的兩翼, 發動擾亂並執行分散軍力活

動. 成千的由紅軍奪的來福槍, 沿途散發, 在從江西到四川的一路上, 造成了許多

新的足以威脅南京的區域. 賀龍那時在湖南北部仍舊保有他的小蘇維埃區域, 而且

蕭克的軍隊也加入進去了. 這許多新產生出來的游擊部隊開始慢慢地向那一區域前

進. 南京化了整整一年的工夫還不能把賀龍驅逐, 直到後來, 紅軍總司令部命令他

們開入四川才離那裏. 這一個開赴四川的行動, 是須要克服種種驚人的困難 -- 經

由西藏 -- 纔能完成的.

從江西來的紅軍, 一路而來, 得到了許多回想的材料. 他們得了許多的新朋友, --
也造成了許多兇狼的仇敵. 沿路上他們[沒收] 富人們 -- 地主, 貪官, 污吏和土豪

劣紳們 -- 的財產, 來供養他們自己. 他們保護窮人. 財產沒收完全是依照蘇維埃

法令有組織地執行的, 而且只有財政委員會沒收部纔有權力分配這些沒收來的東西

. 這個委員會主管著軍隊的財源, 各種沒收都由無線電報告委員會, 每一支長征部

隊的給養數量都由牠支配, 這些隊伍是常常像一條長達五十哩的長蛇, 在山上蜿蜓

著的.

常常有大宗的[過剩東西] -- 多到紅軍帶不動 -- 就分配給本地的窮人. 在雲南紅

軍從富足的火腿棧房中, 沒收了好幾千隻火腿, 就有數十里外的農民來領受這一份

不要錢的火腿 -- 這是火腿業歷史上一件新奇的事情. 他們又照這個辦法分配了幾

十噸的鹽. 在貴州的時候, 從許多地主和政府官吏們那裏沒收了許多鴨田, 紅軍天

天吃著鴨子, 直到吃厭了. 從江西出發時, 他們在自己的國家銀行裏, 帶來了大批

的南京政府的鈔票, 銀元與銀塊, 在他們路上的窮苦區域裏, 他們就用這些錢來買

所需要的東西. 地契都毀了, 捐銳都廢除了, 窮苦的農民都武裝起來了.

紅軍告訴我, 除了他們在四川西部的經驗之外, 他們走到任何地方, 都受農民大眾

的歡迎. 他們的名聲, 在他們軍隊沒有到大之前就傳播著, 常常有被壓迫的農民,
推派一群代表來要求他們繞道到他們的地方去[解放] 他們. 他們對於紅軍的政治綱

領當然是不大明瞭的; 他們只知道, 紅軍是[窮人們的軍隊] 這就夠了. 毛澤東帶著

笑告訴我, 說有一次一隊代表團到來歡迎蘇維埃先生! 可是這種鄉村的農民, 末必

比福建軍閥盧興邦來更為愚蒙, 因為盧興邦有一次在他們防去裏遍貼佈告, 懸賞[捉

拿蘇維埃 -- 不論死活]. 盧氏在佈告上說, 這位匪徒在多處做了無數的罪惡, 所以

必須以極刑!

南方的紅軍在毛兒蓋與懋功休息了三個星期. 在這個期間, 革命軍事會議, 黨及蘇

維埃政府的代表們, 討論將來的計畫. 我們當可記得紅軍第四方面軍, 一九三三年

春間, 在四川已經有了根據地. 這第四方面軍原是在鄂, 豫, 皖蘇區裏組成的. 牠

過河南到四川的進軍, 是由徐向前和張國燾兩個紅軍老將率領的. 關於這兩位將來

我還要提到. 驚人的勝利 -- 和悲劇的掙扎 -- 使他們在四川出了名, 四川的整個

北部, 曾經一度在他們控制之下. 他們在毛兒蓋和南來的布爾什維克會合的時候,
徐向前的軍隊約計有五萬人. 所以在一九三五年七月裏, 集中在四川西部的紅軍聯

合力量, 將近有十萬人了.

在這裏這兩支軍隊又分別了, 南方軍隊中的一部繼續著北上, 其餘的和第四方面軍

一起留在四川. 關於這要實行的正確路線, 黨裏面意見頗有不同. 張國燾和徐向前

贊成留在四川, 打算在長江南部, 重新建立起共產黨的勢力來. 毛澤東, 朱德和中

央委員會的大部分人, 決定繼續到西北去. 這個猶豫期間, 終於為了兩個因素的影

響而告終了. 第一個是蔣介石軍隊的包圍形勢的迅速完成, 他從東方, 北方把軍隊

推進到四川. 在這兩支紅軍中間, 插進了一隻木梢. 第二個是四川的一條水流湍急

的河突然漲水不能過渡, 於是把兩支軍隊分開了. 此外還有黨的一些別的因素, 在

這裏是毋需討論的.

八月間, 從江西來的紅軍主力, 以第一團為前鋒, 繼續向北前進, 把朱德留下來和

徐向前, 張國燾在一塊, 在四川指揮. 第四方面軍後來在這裏以及在西藏又停留了

一年, 然後和賀龍的第二方面軍聯合起來, 大舉直入甘肅 -- 這是我將來要敘述的

. 一九三五年八月, 在向四川, 西藏邊境的大草地前進的紅色隊伍前頭, 是林彪,
彭德懷, 左權, 陳賡, 周恩來, 毛澤東等指揮官們, 江西中央蘇維埃政府委員的大

部分, 以及黨中央委員的大部分. 他們率領三萬大軍開始長征的最後階段.

最危險而最驚人的路程, 擺在他們的後面, 因為他們所選擇的路程要通過獨立的蠻

子種族, 和遊牧的西番 -- 西藏東部一種好戰的部落 -- 所居住的地方. 經過蠻子

和西藏人區域的時候, 紅黨們第一次遇見一種聯合對他們採取敵意的居民, 他們在

這一段長征中受的損失, 超過了過去的一切. 他們有錢, 可是買不到食物. 他們有

槍械, 可是他們的敵人是看不見的. 當他們走進邃密的森林之中, 越過十幾條大河

的源頭的時候, 這些蠻族的人民, 向後撤退離開了他們. 他們把房子裏的東西都帶

走了, 把一切可以吃的東西都運走了, 把牛和雞類等家畜都趕到高原上去, 這簡直

把整個的區域撤清了.

可是在路的兩旁半里路開外, 是非常不安全的. 許多的紅軍戰士, 冒險去放一隻羊

吃草, 就不再回來了. 這些山民埋伏在深的樹林裏, 向著前進的[侵入者] 襲擊. 他

們爬上了高山, 等紅軍排隊走過那深而窄狹的石路的時候, -- 那裏有時只能一個和

兩個人並肩走過 -- 蠻子們就從山上滾下大塊的圓石頭, 攻打紅軍的士兵和牲口.
在這裏根本沒有機會去[解釋紅黨們對少數民族的政策], 也沒有機會去進行友誼的

聯絡. 蠻子們的女酋長, 對於任何中國人, 有一種不可解的傳統上的仇恨, 而又不

辨明[紅] [白] 之間的分別. 她恫嚇她的屬下如有幫助那過路的人, 她要把他活活

煮死.

紅軍除了用搶奪的方法以外, 不能得到任何食物. 他們用戰爭來搶奪一些牛. 那時

他們有一句話: [買一隻羊, 要以一個紅色戰士的生命作代價]. 可是從蠻子的田地

上, 他們收割了綠色的西藏麥子, 和甜菜, 蘿蔔等蔬菜. 據毛澤東說那些蘿蔔很大

可供[十五個人吃]. 用這樣少得可憐的給養, 他們渡過了大草地. 毛澤東很滑稽地

對我說: [這是我們唯一的外債, 將來我們一定要把這筆我們不得不從他們這裏搶奪

過來的給養償還給苗子和西藏人]. 只有俘獲了蠻族人, 他們纔能等到引路的人. 紅

黨們和這些引路人, 結成了很好的朋友, 這些人, 出了蠻子邊境, 還繼續跟著紅軍

前進. 有一些現在是陝西黨學校的學生, 將來有一天他們會回去時, 會告訴他們地

人民, [紅色中國人] 與白色中國人之間是有分別的.

在大草地中, 走了十天, 不見人煙. 十天中幾乎不斷地下雨, 下在這一帶濕地上.
只有循著本地山裏人所走過的一些縱橫交叉的腳印, 纔能穿過牠的中部. 在這裏紅

軍有損失了一些人和牲口. 有3
'5c多人沈沒入這種濕草的海裏, 在他們的同志還沒有來得及援救的時候, 他們已經

沒入水草而看不見了. 這裏沒有柴火; 他們不得不吃青麥和生蔬菜. 這裏甚至沒有

樹木來藏身, 而行軍輕便的紅軍們又都是不帶帳篷的. 在晚上, 大家擁擠在一塊蘆

葦下過夜, 這簡直是不能遮雨的, 可是從這種艱苦鍛練中, 他們也勝利的通過了草

地 -- 至少比起那些追趕他們的白軍們來可以這樣說. 那些白軍迷失了路, 等到摸

索回去時, 只有很少的一部分沒有損失.

紅軍現在到達了甘肅邊境. 前面還要有好幾次的作戰, 這幾次戰爭中任何一次的失

敗了就是決定的滅亡. 更多的南京軍隊, 東北軍隊和回民軍隊, 已經在甘肅南部動

員來阻攔他們的前進, 但是他們終於衝破了一切障礙, 而且在戰爭的進行中, 他們

從回族的騎兵, 奪取了好幾百疋馬, 這些騎兵軍隊, 驍勇善戰, 人們預料他們一定

會把紅軍一舉消滅的. 腳走痛了, 人疲倦了, 一切已經達到了人類所能忍受的限度

了, 紅軍最後進入了陝北, 直達長城之下. 一九三五年十月二十日, 正是江西動身

的一年以後, 第一方面軍的前鋒隊伍, 和紅軍第二十五軍, 第二十六軍, 第二十七

軍會合起來 -- 這三軍在一九三三年, 已經在陝西建立了一個小小的蘇維埃政權的

根據地. 這些不到二萬的戰爭的殘生, 現在才停留下來領略他們所成就的事業的重

要意義了.

http://yn.chung.id.au/MAO.AfterLongMarch.jpg


[A photo Mao gave to Edgar Snow who visited him in 1936]


關於長征的一種統計的敘述, 是頗為動人的. 牠揭出, 在沿路上. 平均幾乎每天有

一次小接觸, 有十五個整天的大戰. 在路上的三百六十八日中, 二百三十五日, 耗

在白日行軍中, 有十八日, 耗在夜間行軍中. 在停留的一百日中 -- 有許多是用在

作戰上的 -- 之中, 有五十六日是在四川西北部度的, 一萬五千里路的行µ
'7b, 只有
四十四天的休息, 平均每走三百五十里才有一次休息. 每天的平均行程是七十里即

二十四英里.

紅軍一共過了十八個大山嶺, 有五個是終年積雪的, 他們渡過了二十四條河流. 他

們經過了十二個行省, 佔領了六十二縣, 除了打敗逃避或包圍了派去攻打他們的中

央政府的各種軍隊以外他們還衝烘d了十省不同的地方軍閥的圍攻軍隊. 他們走入,
並且成功的通過了六種不同的末開化民族的區域, 深入了數十年來中國軍隊從末到

過的地方.

不管人們對紅軍怎樣想法, 也不管人們對於他們在政治上所代表的東西怎樣認識 (在

這一點上, 是很有辯論的餘地的!) 可是無論如何不能夠否認, 他們這次長征, 是軍

事史上的鬥爭.

(10)B
長征 - 通過大草地 - Across the Great Grasslands

在亞洲只有蒙古人曾經勝過他們, 至於最近三世紀來, 則除斯文赫定(Sven Hedin)
在他的帝皇之城, 熱河(Jehol, City of Emperors) 一書中所說的[韜格脫之逃亡
Flight of the Torgut] 外, 從沒有過和紅軍相同的[整個國家的遷移]. 漢尼拔 (Hannibal)

之越過阿爾卑斯山 (Alps), 和紅軍的長征相比, 直是假日旅行而已. 一個更有趣
味的列子乃是拿破崙之莫斯科敗逃, 而他的大軍乃是完全被擊破而潰散了的.

在某種意義上說: 這種一個大眾的遷移歷史上最大的武裝宣傳游歷. 紅軍所經過的

各省, 人口超過二萬萬. 在戰爭與小衝突之間, 在每一個佔領下來的城鎮裏, 他們

召集了群眾大會, 舉行了戲劇的公演, 向富人們大敲其[竹槓], 解放了許多奴隸(有

許多加入了紅軍), 宣傳著[自由, 平等, 民主,] 的政治原則, 沒收了漢奸們(即官

吏, 大地主, 捐稅徵收者)的財產, 把他們的貨物分散給窮人. 有千百萬的農民, 看

見了紅軍, 並見聽見他們說話, 他們再也不懼怕紅軍了. 紅軍向他們解釋土地革命

的目的, 和他們的抗日政策. 他們武裝了千萬的農民, 留下了小隊, 去訓練紅色游

擊隊, 使南京軍隊, 從此忙個不休. 在這個長期的驚心的進軍中, 有數千落後了,
可是另外有幾千人 -- 農夫, 學徒, 奴隸, 國民黨軍隊逃兵, 工人, 以及一切沒有

權位者 -- 參加並補充了空缺.

關於這種驚人的長征, 將來有一天會有人寫成全部的詩史的. 這種征戰, 即使把政

治和戰事除掉, 也是近代歷史中, 青年們的一種動人的成就. 可是我現在必須要繼

續我的故事, 因為我們已經把紅軍匯合在西北了. 現在我把毛澤東主席所寫關於這

次二萬五千里的長征的一首古詩, 寫下來作為結束, 這位叛逆者既能領帶十字軍,
同時又寫得一首好詩.

長征 Long March
Written in October 1935, a few days after the completion of the Long March.


紅軍不怕遠征難,---Hong2 jun bu4 pa4 yuan3 zheng nan2
萬水千山只等閒.---Wan4 shui3 qian shan zhi deng3 xian2.
五嶺逶迤騰細浪,---Wuling wei yi3 teng2 xi3 lang4,
烏蒙磅礡走泥丸.---Wumeng bang4 zhuan zou3 ni4 wan2.
金沙水拍雲崖暖,---Jinsha shui3 pai yun2 ya2 nuan3,
大渡橋橫鐵索寒.---Dadu Qiao heng2 tie3 suo3 han2.
更喜岷山千里雲,---Geng4 xi3 Minshan qian li3 yun2,
三軍過後盡開顏.---San jun guo4 hou4 jin4 kai yan2

The Red Army fears not the trials of the Long March,
Holding light ten thousand crags an torrents.
The Five Ridges wind like gentle ripples
And the majesticWumeng roll by, globules of clay.
Warm the steep cliffs lapped by the waters of Golden Sands[1A],
Cold the iron chains spanning the Dadu River[2B].
Minshan's thousand li of snow joyous crossed,
The Three Armies march on, each face glowing.

Source:
Mao Tsetung poems,
Foreign Language Press, Peking, 1976

The poem was written by Mao Zedong (毛澤東) in October 1935 after the Red
Army had completed the Long March. Edgar Snow, the first American, visited
Yanan (延安) and Mao Zedong gave him the poem.

[1A] 金沙水 (Golden Sands river) is Yangtze River as known in that region
of Sichuan province (四川省).

[2B] 大渡 Dadu
The Luding Bridge is spanned over the Dadu River.

[C3] 三軍 (The "Three Armies") are the First, Second and Fourth Front armies.

Mao Zedong included in his poem the two Front armies which would reach
Shaanxi and reunite the forces in 1936.

The background of the poem.

On November 7, 1931, in a little town called Ruijin (瑞金), south of Jiangxi
province (江西省), the Chinese Red Army proclaimed the formation of the
Chinese Soviet Republic and set up a Provisional Soviet Government with
Mao Zedong (毛澤東) as the chairman. The commander-in-chief of the Red Army
was Zhu De (朱德).

The size of the Soviet territory expanded and contracted according to the
fortunes of the war. There was a short period during which the Red Army
occupied more than sixty counties of Jiangxi province. However, the districts
permanently held by the Soviet was only about seventeen counties in the
border regions between the two provinces of Jiangxi and Fujian (福建省),
with a population of about three million who were mainly the speakers of
Hakka and Gan (贛) dialects. The Gan speakers were the natives of Jiangxi
province, whereas, the Hakkas or the Guest People, residing astride the
border of these two provinces, were the offspring of the emigrants from
the north arrived and settled here at the end of the Dynasties of Jin (晉

朝 265AD to 420AD), Tang (唐朝 618AD to 907AD) and Song (宋朝 960AD to 1279AD)

.

The Soviet had a large corps of peasant Red Guards who fought alongside
the Red Army against Chiang Kai-Shek's (蔣介石) forces. In 1932 it was estimated
that the total strength of the Red Army and the peasant Red Guards were
151,000 with only 97,500 old rifles. These forces fought a civil war against
Chiang Kai-shek's armies who were five to seven times stronger than them.
In armaments, Chiang's forces were a thousand times their superior.

For five years, from 1930 to 1934, the peasants and the Red Army outmaneuvered
and defeated four successive campaigns against them by Chiang Kai-shek.
With the support of the population, their superior mobility and their knowledge
of the terrain they defeated division after division of Chiang's best crack
troops. A missionary correspondent of the North China Daily News reported
on August 19, 1931: "......a strange thing that so many people are willing
to undertake what they know means death......".

In August 1933 Chiang Kai-shek launched the fifth campaign with a million
men and an air force of more than four hundred airplanes. Chiang even employed
two German military advisers who devised a tactic to throttle the Chinese
Soviet Republic. Chiang's troops built blockhouses round the Soviet territory.

By the end of January 1934 they had built an estimated total of 2,900 blockhouses.

A tight economic blockade was imposed on the Soviet area that was desperately
short of salt, kerosene, medical supplies and many essential daily items.
The Red Army was defeated in battle after battle. By June 1934 the territory
under the control of the Communists was reduced to only a few counties.
Now
the Red Army had to confront the question of either to break out of the
encirclement or sitting down to await annihilation. It seemed that a breakout
was inevitable.

The decision to evacuate the Soviet was made on October 2, 1934. Twelve
days later, on October 14, 1934 the embattled Red Army began the Long March.
The Red Army chose to march through the Hakka villages because they knew
the Hakkas would help them. Along the trek they passed through many Hakka
villages where the villagers tried their best to help the Red Army and many
young Hakkas joined the ranks of the Red Army.

After much fighting and marching for five months the Red Army arrived at
a town called Luding (瀘定) in Sichuan province (四川省). The Red Army had
to cross the Luding Bridge that was spanned by 13 iron chains. 200 feet
below the bridge was
the Dadu River (大渡河). The capture and crossing of the Luding Bridge was
the most risky and dramatic episode on the Long March.

It was here in 1864, that the heroic Taiping army (太平軍) of the Taiping
Heavenly Kingdom (太平天國 1851AD to 1864AD), under the command of Prince
Shi Dakai
(翼王石達開) was massacred by the Qing Government (清朝) troops commanded
by Zeng Guofan (曾國藩). People said that at night one could occasionally
hear the souls of the dead Taiping soldiers wailing and lamenting their
fate and crying out for vengeance.

Zhu De (朱德), the commander-in-chief of the Red Army, retold to his comrades
the stories which the Old Weaver used to tell him in his childhood about
the Taiping Army of Shi Dakai.

["Yes," the Old Weaver used to say, "our army perished at the Dadu River,
Prince Shi's troops died by the thousand at the Dadu River, and some in
the river because they were starving and preferred death in the river to
surrender to the Tartars. They had no food and they ate all the horses and
mules.......The Tartars......bribed the savage Lolos and armed them with
foreign guns to attack Shi from the rear and cut off his food supply....They
built defences along the Dadu River and Shi Dakai could not cross, for we
Taipings had only bows and arrows.......Shi's soldiers......made rafts,
and 5,000 boarded them and held their leather shields before them and
their spears in their hands.........But the foreign cannon blazed, the rafts
were destroyed by the Tartars. Dadu River was clogged with the bodies of
the dead". [from Smedley's 大路 THE GREAT ROAD

The Old Weaver would close his story with the words:
"On dark nights, when there is no moon, you can still hear the spirits of
our Taiping
dead wailing at the Dadu River crossing and over the town where they were
slaughtered. They will wail until they are avenged. Then their spirits will
rest."]

Prince Shi Dakai surrendered and suffered a gruesome death.

All the planks on the bridge had been removed by Chiang Kai-shek's troops
before the Red Army arrived. The Red Army men swung from the chains under
fire to cross and capture the bridge from Chiang Kai-shek' troops who fled
for their lives after seeing the heroic actions of the Red Army. Eventually
the Red Army crossed the Luding bridge and did not suffer the same fate
as the Taiping Army.

The Red Army marched through eleven provinces, over raging rivers and snow-capped
mountain ranges, through swamps and forests. They had to fight Chiang Kai-shek'

s armies, the troops of provincial warlords, local bandits and hostile tribesmen.

After marching for a whole year (368 days to be exact) and 25,000 circuitous
lis (二萬五千里) they arrived at the other end of China, Shaanxi province
(陜西省) near the Great Wall, on October 20, 1935.

In his book "Red Star Over China" Edgar Snow said that the Long March was

"one of the great triumphs of men against odds and man against nature."


On hearing that the Red Army had arrived near the Great Wall Chiang Kai-shek
nearly fainted. He said that the Japanese were only the disease in the skin,
but the Communists were the cancer in the heart.
..........................................................


http://yn.chung.id.au/Routes.Of.The.Long.March.jpg

[The map is from the book "On the Long March with Chairman Mao 跟隨毛主席

長征"
by Chen Chanfeng 陳昌奉著。

The Long March, the first such expedition in history, was made by the Chinese
Workers' and Peasants' Red Army under the leadership of the Chinese Communist
Party and Chairman Mao Tsetung (Mao Zedong 毛澤東)during the period of 1934
- 1936. Covering 25,000 li (12,500 kilometers), the march ended in victory
after breaching heavy enemy (Kuomintang 國民黨) encirclements and overcoming
innumerable dangers and difficulties.

This book is a record of the author's six years from 1930, when he served
first as Chairman Mao Tsetung's orderly and then as bodyguard. Here are
his impressions of the Chairman's life and work, focusing on the Long March,
and of the Red Army in time of trial. These reminiscences of the revolution
highlight the historical events of that period and bring out vividly Chairman
Mao's revolutionary outlook and plain living.

The rotes on the Long March

(01) 瑞金--江西省--(Ruijin--Jiangxi province)
(02) 于都--江西省--(Yutu--Jiangxi province)
(03) 信豐--江西省--(Xinfeng--Jiangxi province)
(04) 大余--江西省--(Dayu--Jiangxi province)
(05) 宜章--湖南省--(Yizhang--Hunan province)
(06) 嘉禾--湖南省--(Jiahe--Hunan province)
(07) 寧遠--湖南省--(Ningyuan--Hunan province)
(08) 道縣--湖南省--(Daoxian--Hunan province)
(09) 臨武--湖南省--(Linwu--Hunan province)
(10) 江華--湖南省--(Jianghua--Hunan province)
(11) 通道--湖南省--(Tongdao--Hunan province)
(12) 黎平--貴州省--(Liping--Guizhou province)
(13) 鎮遠--貴州省--(Zhanyuan--Guizhou province)
(14) 石阡--貴州省--(Shiqian--Guizhou province)
(15) 湄潭--貴州省--(Meitan--Guizhou province)
(16) 遵義--貴州省--(Zunyi--Guizhou province)
(17) 桐梓--貴州省--(Tongzi--Guizhou province)
(18) 三江--四川省--(Sanjiang--Sichuan province)
(19) 習水--四川省--(Xishui--Sichuan province)
(20) 赤水--貴州省--(Chishui--Guizhou province)
(21) 威信--雲南省--(Weixin--Yunnan province)
(22) 茅臺--貴州省--(Maotai--Guizhou province)
(23) 水城--貴州省--(Shuicheng--Guizhou province)
(24) 龍里--貴州省--(Longli--Guizhou province)
(25) 長順--貴州省--(Changshun--Guizhou province)
(26) 興仁--貴州省--(Xingren--Guizhou province)
(27) 宣威--雲南省--(Xuanwei--Yunnan province)
(28) 會澤--南省--(Huize--Yunnan province)
(29) 馬龍--雲南省--(Malong--Yunnan province)
(30) 嵩民--雲南省--(Songmin--Yunnan province)
(31) 武定--雲南省--(Wuding--Yunnan province)
(32) 元謀--雲南省--(Yuanmou--Yunnan province)
(33) 絞車--雲南省--(Jiaoche--Yunnan province)
(34) 德昌--四川省--(Dehchang--Sichuan province)
(35) 西昌--四川省--(Xichang--Sichuan province)
(36) 冕寧--四川省--(Mianning--Sichuan province)
(37) 越西--四川省--(Yuexi--Sichuan province)
(38) 安順場-四川省--(Anshunchang--Sichuan province)
(39) 瀘定--四川省--(Luding--Sichuan province)
(40) 雅安--四川省--(Yaan--Sichuan province)
(41) 寶興--四川省--(Baoxing--Sichuan province)
(42) 懋功--四川省--(Maogong--Sichuan province)
(43) 撫邊--四川省--(Fubian--Sichuan province)
(44) 毛兒蓋--四川省--(Maoergai--Sichuan province)
(45) 通渭--甘肅省--(Tongwei--Gansu province)
(46) 隆德--_i夏省--(Longde--Ningxia province)
(47) 環縣--甘肅省--(Huanxian--Gansu province
(48) 吳旗-陝西省--(Wuqi--Shaanxi province)
(49) 保安--陝西省--(Baoan--Shaanxi province)
(50) 延安--陝西省--(Yanan--Shaanxi province)

Reference Books:

(1) The Long March by Dick Wilson (the best book on the Long March)
(2) On the Long March with Chairman Mao by Chen Changfeng 陳昌奉
(3) The Morning Deluge by Dr. Han Suyin 韓素音
(4) My Memoir by Zhang Guotao 張國濤
(5) The Red Star Over China by Edgar Snow
(6) I and the Red Army by Gong Chu
(7) Selected Works of Mao Tse-Tung by Mao Zedong.

BTW
Please print my postings and send copies to your friends and for your future
references. Please do not sell your copies for money. The autobiography
of Mao Zedong is free for the people in the world. However Taiwan Chinese
are selling this book for $200.00 Taiwan dollars. These people are thinking
that they are the only people who know about this book. As soon as this
book was translated into English in China hundreds of copies were being
smuggled to the former British Colony of Malaya. Many Chinese school teachers
had read the book before it was banned in Malaya at the request of Our Greatest
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek (蔣介石). You can download it free from our
asiawind.com.

Happy Reading

re- posted to asiawind.com
By CHUNG Yoon-Ngan (鄭永元)

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More poems written by Mao Zedong

Since the Autumn Uprising in 1927 Mao Zedong had never been back to his
birthplace, the house in which he was born.

http://yn.chung.id.au/Birth.Place.jpg

On June 25th 1959, Mao Zedong returned home and went to pay respect to his
parent's graves. He wrote this poem to commemorate his returning home.

到韶山 Returning to Shaoshan
Written in June 1959

別夢依稀咒逝川,---Bie2 meng4 yi xi zhou4 shi4 chuan [1A],
故園三十二年前.---Gu4 yuan2 san shi2 er4 nian2 qian2.
紅旗捲起農奴戟,---Hong2 qi2 juan3 qi3 nong2 nu2 ji3,
黑手高懸霸王鞭.---Hei shou3 gao xuan2 ba4 wang2 bian.
為有犧牲多壯志,---Wei4 you3 xi sheng duo zhuang4 zhi4,
敢教日月換新天.---Gan3 jiao ri4 yue4 huan4 xin tian.
喜看稻菽千重浪,---Xi3 kan dao4 shu qian chong2 lang4,
遍地英雄下夕煙.---Bian4 di4 ying xiong2 xia4 xi yan.

Like a dim dream recalled, I curse the long-fled past,
My native soil two and thirty years gone by.
The red flag roused the serf, halberd in hand,
While the despot's black talons held his whip aloft.
Bitter sacrifice strengthens bold resolve
Which dares to make sun and moon shine in new skies.
Happy, I see wave upon wave of paddy and beans,
And all around heroes home-bound in the evening mist.

Source:
Mao Tsetung poems,
Foreign Language Press, Peking, 1976

[1A]
逝川 (shi4 chuan)
Mao Zedong quotes from Confucius 論語 (Lun Yu): on chapter 16, 子罕篇.
子在川上曰:
"逝者如斯天! 不舍晝天"

孔子站在河邊, 看了那河水流個不停, 感歎著說:
"逝去的就像流水一般! 不分晝夜,永無止息".

Confucius, standing near the bank of a river watching the flowing water,
said:
"When one dies, one is like the flowing water, flowing endlessly day and
night".

The background of the poem:

In June 1959, Khrushchev, the leader of Russia, not only reneged its promise
to supply Nuclear know-how to China, but also encouraged the Chinese to
dump Mao Zedong. On June 25th, Mao Zedong returned to his home in Shaoshan
(韶山) and went to see his parents' graves. The Russians crippled the Chinese
program of building their own Nuclear weapons. It seemed that everything
was going against him.Therefore he chose this moment to go home to revive
his spirit just like what he did in the early days of the civil war.

Mao Zedong stepped through the front door and entered his own house. His
dead parents' photos were hanging on the wall in the hall. He gazed at the
photos for a while in silence, [I wondered what was in his mind].

http://yn.chung.id.au/MAO.Family.Photos.jpg

[Mao Zetian 毛澤田, the next photo is his father, Mao Zemin 毛澤民, his
mother 文其美, Mao Zedong 毛澤東, the next photo is Mao's father Mao Rensheng
毛仁生. Mao Zehong 毛澤紅, the younger sister of Mao, the youngest child
in the Mao family, was not in the photos].

Mao Zedong then turned to his companions and said that they should not have
died that young with today's medical conditions. His mother died of lymph
gland which could be cured easily. His father died at fifty of typhoid fever
which could be cured easily by today's medical standard.

The next morning, taking a pine twig (松枝 old tradition - started during
the Chun Qiu Period 春秋時代 770BC to 476BC - a long story - no space to
tell the story here), he went up the hill where his parents were buried.
Respectfully, he offered the pine twig before his parents graves in a dignified
manner. He bowed his head three times to his parents. With his head bowed,
he said softly to his dead parents:

"In the old days, the ancestors suffered hardship, whereas, nowadays, their
descendants enjoy happiness. Rest in peace and everything will be fine".
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重上井岡山 Reascending Jinggang Mountain
Written in May 1965

久有凌雲志,------Jiu3 you3 ling2 yun2 zhi4,
重上井岡山.------Chong2 shang4 Jinggangshan.
千里來尋故地,---Qian li3 lai2 xun2 gu4 di4,
舊貌變新顏.------Jiu4 mao4 bian4 xin yan2.
到處鶯歌燕舞,---Dao4 chu3 ying ge yan4 wu3,
更有潺潺流水,---Geng you3 chan2 chan2 liu2 shui3,
高路入雲端.-------Gao lu4 ru2 yun2 duan.
過了黃洋界,-------Guo4 le Huangyangjie,
只要肯登攀.-------Zhi yao ken3 deng pan.

風雷動,---------------Feng lei2 dong4,
旌旗奮,---------------Jing qi2 fen4,
是人寰.---------------Shi4 ren2 huan2.
三十八年過去,----San shi2 ba nian2 guo4 qu4,
彈指一揮間.--------Tan2 zhi3 yi hui jian4.
可上九天攬月,-----Ke3 shang4 Jiutian lan3 yue4,
可下五洋捉鱉,-----Ke3 xia4 Wuyang zhuo bie,
談笑凱歌還.--------Tan2 xiao4 kai3 ge hai2.
世上無難事,--------Shi4 shang4 wu2 nan2 shi4,
只要肯登攀.--------Zhi yao ken3 deng pan.

I have long aspired to reach for the clouds
And I again ascend Jinggang Mountain[1A].
Coming from afar to view our old haunt,
I find few scenes replacing the old.
Everywhere orioles sing, swallows dart,
Streams babble
And the road mount skywards.
Once Huangyangjie[2B] is passed
No other perilous place calls for a glance.

Wind and thunder are stirring,
Flags and banners are flying
Wherever men live.
Thirty-eight years[3C] are fled
With a mere snap of the fingers.
We can clasp the moon in the Ninth Heaven[4D]
And seize turtles deep down in the Five Seas:
Nothing is hard in this world
If you dare to scale the heights.

Notes:
[1A] and [2B] 井岡山 and 黃洋界
Please refer to his poem No. 5 as below.

[3C] Thirty-eight years
Counting from the year in September 1927 he and about eight hundred of the
remnants of the Autumn Harvest Uprising climbed the Jinggang Mountain.


[4D] 可上九天攬月
This is taken from the poem written by the Tang poet, Li Bai 李白
entitled "宣州謝口" which is:

棄我去著, 昨日之日不可流;
亂我心者, 今日之日多煩憂.
長風萬里送秋雁, 對此可以酣高樓.
蓬萊文章建安骨, 中見小謝又清發;
俱懷逸興壯思飛, 欲上青天攬明月.
抽刀斷水水更流, 舉杯消愁愁更愁.
人生在世不稱意, 明朝散髮弄扁舟.

Background of the poem:

In the spring of 1965 Mao Zedong went on a long tour of central and southern
China. On May 22, 1965, Mao Zedong went by car to reascend Jinggang Mountain.


He stayed for eight days in the mountain. On the morning of May 27, he climbed
up the slope to the summit and took in the scenes which had then been his
daily life. He poured his feelings into this poem. In the little football
field in the mountain Mao Zedong received and talked to the 1,700 residents.
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井岡山 Jinggangshan [1]
Written in Autumn 1928.

山下旌旗在望,------Shan xia4 jing qi2 zai4 wang4,
山頭鼓角相聞.------Shan tou2 gu3 jiao4 xiang wen2.
敵軍圍困萬千重,---Di2 jun wei2 kun4 wan4 qian chong2,
我自巋然不動.------Wo3 zi4 kui ran2 bu4 dong4.

早已森嚴壁壘,------Zao3 yi3 sen yan2 bi4 lei3,
更加眾志成城.------Geng jia zhong4 zhi4 cheng2 cheng2.
黃洋界上炮聲隆,---Huangyangjie shang4 bao sheng long2,
報導敵軍宵遁.------Bao4 dao3 di2 jun xiao dun4.

Our banners and flags are visible at the mountain foot,
On the mountain top sound our drums and bungles.
Thousands of enemies are besieging us,
Steadfastly we stand our ground.

We have already strongly fortified our fortress,
The unity of our wills is an impregnable stronghold.
From Huangyangjie[2] comes the thunder of guns,
It is reported that the enemies have fled.

The background of the poem.

On September 9, 1927, Mao Zedong led a group of peasants and staged an uprising
called the Autumn Harvest Uprising (秋收暴動) in Hunan province (湖南省).
The insurrection failed miserably. In October 1927, Mao Zedong congregated
the remnants of the uprising of about 800 men and 80 old rifles. They climbed
the Jinggangshan (井崗山) with the goal of establishing a revolutionary
base in the mountains (please see the poem "Autumn Harvest Uprising").

[1] 井岡山 Jinggangshan
Jinggangshan is a massive mountain range, lying between the two provinces
of Jiangxi (江西省) and Hunan.

At that time, there were only five villages in this region of 900 square
kilometers. All the families were Hakka People (客家人) whose forefathers
had come from the north several hundred years ago.The total population in
Jinggangshan was less than 2,000 and they were so poor that only a few of
them had more than a pair of trousers. They made fire by striking stones.
The red earth in Jinggangshan was so hard that hardly any crops grew in
this
desolated area. The Hakka men were mostly porters and farm hands in the
plains
below. Mao Zedong managed to win over two groups of about 600 armed Hakka
in this area. The Hakkas in Jinggangshan helped Mao Zedong to realize his
goal.

[2] Huangyangjie 黃洋界
Huangyangjie is the name of one of the five passes to Jinggangshan. The
other four passes are: Bamianshan (八面山), Shuangmashi (雙馬石), Zhushachong
(朱沙沖) and Tongmuling (桐木嶺).

In late August 1928, the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party
(CCP) of Hunan province specially dispatched Du Xiujing (杜修經) to see
Mao Zedong and ordering him to lead the No.28 and No.29 Regiments of the
Red Army to bound for Guidong (桂東) in southern Huanan province. Knowing
that the main force of the Red Army had left Jinggangshan the Kuomintang
(KMT 國民黨) Army attacked Jinggangshan. In the morning of August 30th,
1928, four regiments of KMT forces from the provinces of Jiangxi and Hunan
launched an attack on Huangyangjie (黃洋界).

At that time, there were only two companies of the No.31st regiment left
at the base. By the afternoon the ammunition of the Red Army was about to
be exhausted. In desperation, a group of red soldiers carried an old and
rusty bazooka with three shells. The red soldiers fired their bazooka at
the KMT troops. The first shot was an empty shell with sound only. They
fired the second shot and it was also an empty shell producing only sound.
They fired the last shell. The third shot was a real shell and by coincident
the shell landed on the commanding post of the KMT. Then it was all quiet.
The red soldiers did not fire their guns as they were about to run out of
ammunition. They waited and waited from the assault from the KMT. But it
never came because the KMT had withdrawn that evening thinking that the
main
force of the Red Army had returned. According to their record only the No.28
Regiment of the Red Army had one or two bazookas.

When he returned to Jinggangshan Mao Zedong was so happy that he wrote this
poem to celebrate the victory.
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Mao Zedong's poem on his wife Yang Kaihui 楊開慧

http://yn.chung.id.au/Yang.Kaihui&Sons.jpg

Guo Moruo (郭沫若) rewrites it into a modern poetry.

This is a poem that Mao Zedong replied to Li Shuyi (李淑一) on 11th May
1957. Li Shuyi was a language teacher at the No.10 High School in Changsha
in Hunan province (湖南長沙第十中學).

蝶戀花 (答李淑一)

我失驕楊君失柳,----------Wo3 shi jiao Yang jun shi Liu,
楊柳輕颺直上重霄九.---Yang Liu qing yang2 zhi2 shang4 chong2 xiao jiu3.

問訊吳剛何所有,----------Wen4 xun4 Wu Gang he2 suo3 you3,
吳剛捧出桂花酒.----------Wu Gang peng3 chu Gui Hua Jiu.

寂寞嫦娥舒廣袖,----------Ji4 mo4 Chang E shu guang xiu4,
萬里長空且為忠魂舞,---Wan4 li3 chang2 kong qie3 wei2 zhong hun2 wu3,
忽報人間曾伏虎,----------Hu bao4 ren2 jian zeng fu2 hu3,
淚飛頓作傾盆雨.----------Lei4 fei dun4 zuo4 qing pen yu3.

I lost my proud Poplar [A*] and you your Willow [B*],
Poplar and Willow soar to the Ninth Heaven.
Wu Gang [C*],asked what he can give,
Serves them a laurel brew[D*]

The lonely Moon Goddess[E*], spreads her ample sleeves
To dance for these loyal souls in the infinite space.
Earth suddenly reports the tiger[F*] subdued,
Tears of joy pour forth falling as mighty rain.

Source:
Mao Tsetung poems,
Foreign Language Press, Peking, 1976

The Explanation

[A*] Yang (楊 Poplar refers to Yang Kaihui (楊開慧), the wife of Mao Zedong.
In 1930 when the Red Army pulled out of Changsha (長沙) the Kuomintang
(國民黨) General He Jian (何健) arrested Yang Kaihui and Mao Zehong (毛澤

紅), the younger sister of Mao Zedong. Without hesitation they were promptly
executed.
In order to extirpate the breed of Mao's family, the Kuomintang soldiers
also wanted to kill the three sons of Mao Zedong, Anying (岸英 1922 to 1951),

Anjing (岸菁 1923 to ?) and Anlong (岸龍 1927 to 1931), but the peasants
hid them.

[B*] Liu (柳 Willow refers Liu Zhenxun (柳直荀), the husband of Li Shiyi
(李淑一).
Liu joined the CCP in 1923 and was a committee member in the provincial
government of Hunan. He took part in the Nanchang uprising 南昌起義). Liu
died in the battle field against the Kuomintang at Hong Hu (洪湖) in 1932
in Hubei province (湖北省). Yang Kaihui and Li Shiyi were good friends and
Mao Zedong and Liu Zhenxun were comrade in arms.

[C*] Wu Gang (吳剛).
Wu Gang was from Xihe Prefecture (西河郡 the present day region north of
the Huanghe 黃河 in Shanxi province 山西省 ) during the Han Dynasty (漢
朝 202BC to 220AD). According to the book 酋陽雜俎 (Qiu Yang Za Zu), Wu
Gang was learning to be a immortal but he failed and was condemned to cut
down an ever-lasting cassia tree growing in the palace on the moon. He worked
very hard trying to hew down the cassia tree. Every time he took a rest
the part that he chopped off grew back.

[D*] Gui Hua Jiu (桂花酒) wine fermented with osmanthus flowers.

[E*] the Moon Goddess refers to Chang E (嫦娥), the Moon Lady. Chang E is
often depicted in a picture of a beautiful maiden against the background
of a full moon, on the packaging of the moon cakes. The next time you visit
a Chinese grocery or cake shop, buying moon cakes, see if you can spot a
picture of Chang E.

[F] 虎 or the tiger refers to Our Great Generalissimo, Chiang Kai-shek (蔣

介石), who was defeated in the Chinese Civil War in 1949 by the Chairman,
Mao Zedong. The Generalissimo fled for his life to Taiwan.
--------------------------------------------------------------

郭沫若 Guo Moruo, rewrites this poem into the style of modern poetry, but
Mao Zedong did not like it. However, in 1990, the rewrote poem found its
way to Hong Kong and was published by the Kunlun (崑崙) Publishing Company
in Hong Kong and later the Washington University in USA in 1990.

我喪失了陽,----------------------Wo3 sang4 shi le Yang,
你喪失了柳,----------------------Ni3 sang4 shi le Liu,
楊柳的忠魂,----------------------Yang Liu di2 zhong hun2,
向月夜高空飄飄走.-----------Xiang4 yue4 ye4 gao kong piao piao zou3.
吳剛啊,-----------------------------Wu Gang a,
你有什麼來款待他們呢?---Ni3 you3 shi2 me lai2 kuan3 dai4 ta men ni2?
吳剛捧出了他的桂花酒.----Wu Gang peng3 chu le ta di2 Gui Hua Jiu.

寂寞的嫦娥展開長袖,--------Ji4 mo4 di2 Chang E zhan3 kai chang2 xiu4,
為了安慰忠魂,-------------------Wei2 le an wei4 zhong hun2,
在萬里長空翩翩起舞.--------Zai4 wan4 li3 chang2 kong pian pian qi3 wu3.

他們忽聽到人間降龍伏虎的消息,
Ta men hu ting dao4 ren2 jian jiang4 long2 fu2 hu3 di2 xiao xi.
那激動的淚水啊,--------------Na4 ji2 dong4 di2 lei4 shui3 a,
剎時間化為一天大雨.-------Cha4 shi2 jian hua4 wei2 yi tian da4 yu3.
----------------------------------------------
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This is what Mao Zedong told the People's Liberation Army not to imitate
Xiang Yu (項羽)

人民解放軍佔領南京
Written in April 1949

鐘山風雨起蒼黃,---Zhongshan feng yu3 qi3 cang huang2,
百萬雄師過大江.---Bai3 wan4 xiong2 shi guo4 da4 jiang.
虎踞龍盤今勝昔,---Hu3 ju4 long2 pan2 jin sheng4 xi,
天翻地覆慨而慷.---Tian fan di4 fu4 kai3 er2 kang3.
宜將剩勇追窮寇,---Yi2 jiang2 sheng4 yong3 zhui qiong2 guan4,
不可沽名學霸王.---Bu4 ke3 gu ming2 xue2 Ba Wang.
天若有情天亦老,---Tian ruo4 you3 qing2 tian yi4 lao3,
人間正道是滄桑.---Ren2 jian zheng4 dao4 shi4 cang sang.

The People's Liberation Army Captures Nanjing

Over Zhongshan swept a storm, headlong,
Our mighty army, a million strong, has crossed the Great River.
The City, a tiger crouching, a dragon curling, outshines its ancient glories;

In heroic triumph heaven and earth have been overturned.
With power and to spare we must pursue the tottering foe
And not ape Xiang Yu the conqueror seeking idle fame.
Were Nature sentient, she too would pass from youth to age,
But man's world is mutable, sea become mulberry fields.

Source:
Mao Tsetung Poems,
Foreign Language Press, 1976, Peking

霸王 means Xiang Yu (項羽)

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