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046 - The chronology of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom

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046 - The chronology of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom

Postby chungyn » Mon Sep 26, 2016 7:27 am

046 - The chronology of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom

太平天國 (公元一八五一至公元一八六四)
Taiping Heavenly Kingdom (1851AD to 1864AD)
年代表與大事記要
The chronology and the major events, in Chinese and English
---------------------------------------------

1814AD (January) ==嘉慶一十八年十二月初十日==(甲戍年 the year of Jia Shu)

洪秀全生在廣東省花縣官祿布村的一個客家家庭

Hong Xiuquan was born in a Hakka family, at Guan Lu Bu village in the county

of Hua of Guangdong province
--------------------------------------------------

1836AD==道光一十六年==(丙申年 the year of Bing Shen)

洪秀全創三點會.在廣州得英牧師瑪禮遜﹐教士梁發所贈「勸世良言」

Hong Xiuquan established the Three Dots Society.
In Guangzhou city Revs. Robert Morrison and Priest Liang Fa [a Hakka from
Malacca in present day Malaysia] gave Hong Xiuquan a parcel of books
consisting of nine small volumes, being a complete set of work titled
"Good words for exhorting the age"
---------------------------------------------

1837AD==道光一十七年==(丁酉年 the year of Ding You)

三月﹐病中異夢﹐思想一變﹐與病前相較判若兩人。

In the third Month Hong Xiuquan felt ill and he was in a very feeble state.
He
was for some time confined to his bed. During this period he had a succesion

of dreams or visions. When he recovered from his sickness Hong Xiuquan had
become a different person.
------------------------------------------

1843AD==道光二十三年, 春==(癸卯年 the year of Gui Mao)

洪秀全第四次廣州應秀才試落第歸﹐設帳授徒本村附近花蓮塘﹐
偶閱「裙勸良言」﹐有所覺悟﹐乃創立拜上帝會﹐認上帝為天父﹐
耶穌為天兄﹐本人為天王。

Hong Xiuquan again attended the public examination at Guangzhou city, the
fourth time. For the fourth time he failed the examination. He stayed at
home and read the volumes of 「Good words for exhorting ]. He began to preach
the gospel of God. He proclaimed himself to be the younger brother of Jesus.
He founded the Association of the Worshippers of God.
--------------------------------------

1844AD==道光二十四年==(甲辰年 the year of Jia Chen)

洪秀全與馮雲山往廣西傳教於廣西貴縣賜谷村。

Hong Xiuquan and Feng Yunshan went to the province of Guangxi
to preach the gospel of God, at the village of Ci Gu in Gui county
of Guangxi province.
-----------------------------------------

1847AD==道光二十七年==(丁未年 the year of Ding Wei)

洪秀全與他的弟弟洪仁玕赴廣州﹐從美國牧師羅孝全學基督教教義。

Hong Xiuquan went with his younger brother Hong Rengan, to Guangzhou
to learn Christianity from the American missionary.
----------------------------------------------

1848AD==道光二十八年==(戊申年 the year of Wu Shen)

洪秀全被捕旋獲釋

Hong Xiuquan was arrested but he was released later.
-------------------------------------------

1850AD==道光三十年==(庚戍年 the year of Geng Shu)

六月﹐洪秀全在廣西桂平縣金田村其起義﹐
其兵皆束髮﹐陷廣西諸城.

In the sixth Month, Hong Xiuquan staged an uprising in Jin Tian village
in
the county of Gui Ping of Guangxi province. All the fighters bound their
hair
up. They captured the city of Zhu Cheng in Guangxi province
--------------------------------------------------

1851AD==咸豐元年==(辛亥年 the year of Xin Hai)
太平天國元年

一月﹐洪秀全稱太平王。閏八月﹐入永安﹐建太平天國﹐自稱天王。
[天下一家﹐共享太平]

太平天國頒佈的主要制度

(A) 政制方面﹕

(1) 天朝田畝制度﹕全國土地公有﹐無分男女同樣受田﹔
(2) 聖庫制﹕一切繳覆獲全部歸公﹐按等級分配﹔
(3) 提倡男女平等﹐婦女可以應試﹐做官﹐參軍。
(4) 廢徐買賣父婚姻﹐禁止買妾﹐買娼﹐販賣奴婢。

(B) 貿易方面﹕

(1) 准許外商公平買賣﹔
(2) 禁止販賣鴉片。

(C) 習俗方面﹕

(1) 折毀祠廟﹐不准拜神佛﹔
(2) 禁止婦女纏足﹔
(3) 不准祀祖先﹐不准尊孔孟。

太平天國主要領導人﹕

(1) 洪秀全=封號=天王(1814AD to 1864AD)
(2) 楊秀清=封號=東王(1820AD to 1856AD)
(3) 蕭朝貴=封號=西王(1820AD to 1852AD)
(4) 馮雲山=封號=南王(1822AD to 1852AD)
(5) 韋昌輝=封號=北王(1823AD to 1856AD)
(6) 石達開=封號=翼王(1831AD to 1863AD)
(7) 陳玉成=封號=英王(1837AD to 1860AD)
(8) 李秀成=封號=忠王 (1823AD to 1864AD)

In the first Month, Hong Xiuquan proclaimed that
[The whole world is a family, we all should enjoy the Great Peace]
he was the King of Taiping or the King of Great Peace. In the intercalary
eighth Month, he entered the city of Yongan in the province of Guangxi.
He established the Kingdom of Heavenly Peace or Taiping Tian Guo and proclaimed
that he was the Heavenly King.

The followings were the Fraternity Kings:

(1) Hong Xiuquan. (1814AD to 1864AD), the Heavenly King
(2) Yang Xiuqing.. (1820AD to 1856AD), the Eastern King
(3) Xiao Chaogui. (1820AD to 1852AD), the Western King
(4) Feng Yunshan. (1822AD to 1852AD), the Southern King
(5) Wei Changhui. (1823AD to 1856AD), the Northern King
(6) Shi Dakai....... .(1831AD to 1863AD), the Assistant King
(7) Chen Yucheng (1837AD to 1860AD), the Superior King
(8) Li Xiucheng.....(1823 AD to 1864AD), the Loyal King.

The major regulations proclaimed by the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom.

(A) On Policy

(1) The Heavenly regulations: All the lands in the country belong to the
Government. When lands are allocated to the tillers they should be of any
difference between male and female.
(2) All war booties belong to the public and should be distributed equally
according to the rank of the fighter.
(3) To encourage on an equality with male and female. Females are allowed
to sit for the public examinations and they are allowed to join the army
and to become officers.
(4) Abolish the trading of marriages; forbid the buying of concubines and
protitutes;
forbid the selling of maids.

(B) On Trade:

(1) Allow businessmen to trade with foreign countries.
(2) Selling opium is forbidden

(C) On Customs:

(1) Destroy the temples and disallow worshipping divine spirits
(2) Forbid foot-bidding for girls
(3) Disallow ancestry worshipping and the honouring of Confucius and Mencius

---------------------------------------------

1852AD==咸豐二年==(壬子年 the year of Ren Zi)
太平天國二年

四月﹐太平軍陷全扛7b。湘江知縣江忠源殺馮雲山。
八月﹐蕭朝貴攻長沙陣亡。左宗棠協守長沙。
十一月﹐太平軍陷漢陽。

In the fourth Month, the Taiping Army captured Quanzhou in Guangxi province.
Feng Yunshan, the Southern King was killed by Jiang Zhongyuan, the county
magistrate of Xiang Jiang in Hunan province. In the eighth Month, Xiao
Chaogui,
the Western King was killed in the battle in the city of Changsha in Hunan
province. [Note: Xiao Chaogui was the husband of Hong Xuanjiao 洪宣嬌,
the younger sister of Hong Xiuquan). Zuo Zongtang was sent by the Qing Authority
to defend the city of Changsha. In the eleventh Month, the Taiping Army
occupied the city in Hanyang in Hubei province.
---------------------------------------------

1853AD==咸豐三年==(癸丑年 the year of Gui Chou)
太平天國三年

一月﹐太平軍陷武昌。二月﹐陷金陵﹐定王都﹐行改革。
太平軍林鳳祥李開芳北伐﹐下鎮江。四月﹐下鳳陽。五月﹐
始製銀鈔。曾國藩起湘勇。七月﹐提督福珠戰死。八月﹐
小刀會劉麗山佔上海城。九月﹐林鳳祥入直隸﹐攻天津﹐
僧格林沁拒之。十月江忠源平湖北太平軍。十二月﹐廬州
城陷落﹐江忠源戰死。

In the first Month, the Taiping Army captured Wu Chang in Hubei province.
In the second Month, the Taiping Army occupied the city of Jin Ling (the
present day of Nanjing city in Jiangsu province). The Taipings decided that
Jin Ling was to be their capital. Jin Ling was renamed to Tian Jing (天京
or the Heavenly Capital)
A strong expeditionary Taiping Army under the command of Lin Feng Xiang
and Li Kai Fang were ordered to conquer the northern part of the country.
Feng Yang was captured in the fourth Month. Zeng Guo Fan, a Hakka scholar
from Hunan province was ordered by the Qing Authority to organize a Hunanese
army to fight the Taiping. The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom issued their own
currency. A secret society by the name of "Little Knives" occupied the city
of Shanghai. In the ninth Month, the Taiping Army had reached near Beijing,
the Qing capital and the Taiping Army were attacking the harbour city of
Tian Jin. However, the Taiping Army were stopped by the Qing Army under
the command of Sengge Linqin. In tenth Month, Jiang Zhong Yuan expelled
the Taiping army from the province of Hubei. In the twelfth Month, the Taiping
Army captured the city of Lu Zhou and Jiang Zhong Yuan was killed in the
battle.

太平天國國書給美國總統
A credential from the Kingdom of Heavenly Peace was to be presented to the
President of the U.S.A. by Hong Ren Gan, the younger brother of Hong Xiu
Quan.

大漢天國天王洪秀全﹐敬問大美國民主安好﹕敝國王于滿人﹐二百年矣。
今我國民奮興﹐貴國獨立之義﹕謀復宗社。幸得人民嚮應﹐東南各省﹐
次第戡定。建立太平天國。特朕弟仁玕﹐出使貴國。此後貴國與敝國共敦
和好﹐共保僑民。互相興商﹐造世界和平之福。朕有厚望焉。
----------------------------------------------

1854AD==咸豐四年==(甲寅年 the Year of Jia Yin)
太平天國四年

一月﹐琦善攻揚州。兩湖總督吳之鎔戰死黃州。林鳳祥南撒。
曾國藩立水師﹐以彭玉麟, 楊載福等統之。全軍一萬七千人。
三月﹐曾國藩投水獲救﹐復湘潭。
八月﹐曾國藩克武昌﹐漢陽與黃州。

In the first Month, Qi Shan, the Qing general, attacked Yangzhou. Wu Zhirong,

the Governor of the province of Hunan and Hubei was killed in the battle
in Huangzhou. Lin Fengxiang, the Taiping Army commander, retreated to the

south. Zeng Guofan (the Hakka from Hunan province) established a naval force

of ten battalions totalling about 17,000 men, who were to be under the command

of Peng Yulin, Yang Zaifu and others.
In the third Month, Zeng Guofan tried to kill himself by plunging into the
river. He was rescued and he returned to Xiang Tan.
In the eighth Month, Zeng Guofan recaptured Wuchang, Hanyang and Huangzhou

------------------------------------------------

1855A大D==咸豐五年==(乙卯年 the Year of Yi Mao)
太平天國五年

一月﹐太平軍陷漢口。僧格林沁捕林鳳祥。
三月﹐武昌復陷。曾國藩困守南昌。江西境入五十餘縣盡被翼王石達貽d所攻陷。
法國提督助太平軍。
四月﹐僧格林沁擒李開芳﹐平河北。
八月﹐曾國藩攻漢口。

In the first Month, the Taiping army overran Hankou. SengKe Linqin captured
Lin Fengxiang, the Taiping Army commander.
In the third Month, Taiping Army captured Wuchang, the third time. Zeng
Guofan was desperately defending Nanchang. More than fifty counties in Jiangxi
province were occupied by Shi Dakai, the Assistant King. The French military
officers were helping the Taiping Army.
In the fourth Month Sengke Linqin captured Li Kaifang, the Taiping Army
commander.
In the eighth Month Zeng Guofan attacked Hankou.
----------------------------------------------

1856AD==咸豐六年==(丙辰年 the Year of Bing Chen)
太平天國六年

三月﹐羅澤南戰死武昌﹐李續賓代領其眾。李秀成陳玉成拔楊州。
五月﹐李秀成拔江南大營。
八月﹐太平天國內訌﹐韋昌輝殺楊秀清﹐天王洪秀全殺韋昌輝。
十一月﹐胡林翼克武昌。

In the third Month, Luo Zenan, the Qing commander, was killed in Wuchang

and Li Xubin succeeded him. Li Xiucheng, the Loyal King, and Chen Yucheng,

the Superior King, captured Yangzhou.
In the fifth Month, Li Xiucheng destroyed the Qing Army camps in the south
of
the Yangtze River.
In the eighth Month, there were internal conflicts among the Heavenly Kings.

The Northern King, Wei Changhui, killed Yang Xiuqing, the Eastern King.

The Heavenly King, Hong Xiuquan killed Wei Changhui.
In eleventh Month, the Qing commander, Hu Linyi recaptured Wuchang.
-------------------------------------------------

1857AD==咸豐七年==(丁巳年 the Year of Ding Si)
太平天國七年

二月﹐曾國藩丁憂﹐使楊載福與彭玉麟代領其軍。
五月﹐太平軍復犯湖北。石達開出走安慶﹐遠征不歸。

In the second Month, the parents of Zeng Guofan passed away and he returned
home. Zeng Guofan appointed Yang Zaifu and Peng Yulin to act on his behalf.
In the fifth Month, the Taiping Army re-entered Hubei province. The Assistant

King, Shi Dakai left Anqing for a long expedition and never returned to
Tianjing, Heavenly capital
------------------------------------------------

1858AD==咸豐八年==(戊午年 the Year of Wu Wu)
太平天國八年

二月﹐和春與張國樑進兵雨花台﹐重建江南大營。
八月﹐李續賓敗死。

In the second Month, the Qing Army under the command of He Chun and Zhang
Guoliang entered Yuhuatai and re-established the Qing military camps in
the
south of the Yangtze River.
In the eighth Month, Li Xubin, the Qing commander, was killed in battle.

------------------------------------------

1859AD==咸豐九年==(己未年 the Year of Ji Wei)
太平天國八年

九月﹐石達開犯廣西桂林。
十一月﹐太平軍池州守將獻城。

In the ninth Month, Shi Dakai invaded Guilin in Guangxi province.
In the eleventh Month, the Taiping Army commander who was defending
Chizhou surrendered to the Qing Army.
-----------------------------------------

1860AD==咸豐十年==(庚申年 the Year of Geng Shen)
太平天國十年

四月﹐李秀成破江南大營。曾國藩任兩江總督。

In the fourth Month, Li Xiucheng destroyed the Qing military camps in the

south of the Yangtze River.
--------------------------------------------

1861AD==咸豐十一年==(辛酉年 the Year of Xin You)
太平天國十一年

八月﹐湘軍拔安慶。
九月﹐胡林翼死于軍中。
十月﹐李秀成陷杭州。

In the eighth Month, the Hunanese Army belonging to Zeng Guofan
captured Anqing.
In the ninth Month, Hu Linyi, the Qing Army commander died in the
army camp.
In the tenth Month, Li Xiucheng captured Hangzhou city.
-----------------------------------------

1862AD==同治元年==(壬戍年 the Year of Ren Shu)
太平天國十二年

一月﹐李秀成攻上海﹐美英法軍援助清軍。上海組常勝軍。
四月﹐李鴻章攻江南太平軍。陳玉成被苗沛霖誘殺。
七月﹐李鴻章與華爾戰太平軍。
八月﹐華爾戰死。
九月﹐金陵大戰﹐李秀成圍攻曾國荃。
十二月﹐曾國藩與李鴻章大破太平軍。

In the first Month, Li Xiucheng attacked Shanghai and the troops of the

countries of U.S.A., Britain and France helped the Qing Army. An Army
called "Ever Victorious Army" was formed in Shanghai.
In the fourth Month, Li Hongzhang attacked the Taiping Army in the south

of the Yangtze River. Chen Yucheng was enticed and later killed by Miao

Peilin,
In the seventh Month, Li Hongzhang and J.E Ward, the U.S.A. representative

in China, fought the Taiping Army.
In the eighth Month, J.E. Ward died in battle.
In the nineth Month, a big battle in Tianjing, the capital of the Taiping.
Li Xiucheng besieged and attacked Zeng Guoquan, the younger brother
of Zeng Guofan.
In the twelfth Month Zeng Guofan and Li Hongzhang defeated the Taiping Army.

----------------------------------------------

1863AD==同治二年==(癸亥年 the Year of Gui Hai)
太平天國十三年

二月﹐英人戈登人常勝軍司令。
四月﹐石達開被擒殺於四川。左宗棠定浙江。
十一月﹐清軍克蘇州。

In the second Month, the young Brtitish engineer, Charles George Gordon,
who was appointed to supervise the destruction of the Summer Palace (圓明
園), in October three years ago (1860) was appointed the commander-in-chief
of the Ever Victorious Army.
In the fourth Month, Shi Dakai was captured and executed in Sichuan province.

Zuo Zhongtang destroyed those Taiping Army in Zhejiang province.
In the eleventh Month, the Qing Army captured Suzhou.
--------------------------------------------------

1864AD==同治三年==(甲子年 the Year of Jia Zi)
太平天國十四年

一月﹐戈登屢破太平軍。
二月﹐淮軍破杭州。
五月﹐常勝軍解散。洪秀全服毒自殺﹐幼主洪福瑱嗣位。
七月﹐曾國荃拔金陵﹐洪福瑱出亡。李秀成被執尋遇害。
八月﹐洪福瑱被執殺於南昌。太平天國亡。

In the first Month, Charles George Gordon, again and again, defeated the

Taiping Army.
In the second Month, the Huai Army belonging to Zuo Zhongtang captured Hangzhou.

In the fifth Month, the Ever Victorious Army was disbanded. Hong Xiuquan,
the Heavenly King, committed suicide by taking poison. Hong Futian, the

16-year-old son of Hong Xiuquan succeeded him.
In the seventh Month, Zeng Guoquan captured the Heavenly capital, Tianjing.

Not a single resident of about 300,000 in Tianjing surrendered to the Qing
Authority. Hong Futian fled from the capital. Li Xiucheng was arrested and
executed.
In the eighth Month, Hong Futian was arrested and executed in Nanchang.
The end of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
-----------------------------------------------

1865AD==同治四年==(乙丑年 the Year of Yi Chou)

八月﹐福建太平軍平。

In the eighth Month, the province of Fujian was free from the Taiping Army.
---------------------------------------------

1866AD==同治五年==(丙寅年 the Year of Bing Yin)

一月﹐左宗棠圍太平軍以嘉應州山中。太平軍戰死者萬餘人。
投降者五萬餘。眾多逃亡到南洋。

In the first Month, Zuo Zongtang besieged the remnants of the Taiping Army
in the hill in Jiayingzhou (Meixian 梅縣). Over ten thousand Taiping soldiers
died in the subsequent battles. Eventually, about fifty thousand Taiping
soldiers surrendered to Zuo Zhongtang. Thousands fled to Nanyang (Malaysia,
Singapore and Indonesia).
----------------------------------------------

太平天國失敗的主要原因﹕

(A) 政治方面﹕

(1) 領導集團內訌﹐洪秀全﹐韋昌輝合謀﹐韋殺楊秀清及其家屬﹐
部下﹔石達貽d被迫率軍出走。
(2) 天王洪秀全任用私人﹐懷疑將士。
(3) 領導集團不能以身作則﹐生活腐化。

(B) 軍事方面﹕

(1) 未能一鼓作氣攻下北京。
(2) 佔一城﹐棄一城﹐沒有穩固的後方。
(3) 後期死守天京

(C) 習俗方面﹕

(1) 不准祀祖﹐不尊孔孟﹐不准拜神佛﹐違反了
中國的傳統習俗。
(2) 獨尊奉上帝﹐徐天地會外﹐不能團結其他起義的立量。

The major causes of the failure of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom

(A) On Policy:

(1) There were internal conflicts among the leaders. Hong Xiuquan, the Heavenly
King and Wei Changhui, the Northern King conspired. Wei Changhui killed
Yang
Xiuqing and his entire family and all his followers. Then Hong Xiuquan had
Wei Changhui executed. Shi Dakai, the Assistant King was forced to leave
the
Heavenly capital.
(2) Hong Xiuquan trusted no one except his own cronies.
(3) The leaders did not set themselves as example to the people and they
were corrupted.

(B) On Military Affairs:

(1) The Taiping Army could not perform the one drum-beat to victory to capture

the Qing capital, Beijing.
(2) Every city that the Taiping Army had captured they abandoned it within
a
short time. They did not have a strong and solid home base.
(3) At the later stage they defended their capital, Tianjing to the death.

(C) On Customs:

(1) By disallowing ancestry worshipping, divine spirits praying, the honouring
of Confucius and Mencies had violated the Chinese tradition.
(2) By allowing only the Association of the Worshippers of God to exist
and no
other associations had weakened the aim to unify other forces
--------------------------------------------------

In January 1864AD General Charles George Gordon, the commander-in-chief
of the Ever Victorious Army (常勝軍), defeated the Army of the Heavenly
Kingdom
(太平天國). In February, the Qing General, Zuo Zhongtang (左宗棠) captured
Hangzhou (杭州). Hong Xiuquan (洪秀全), the Heavenly King, committed suicide

by taking poison. Hong Futian (洪福瑱), the 16-year-old son of Hong Xiuquan
succeeded him as the new Heavenly King.

In July the same year, the Qing Army under the command of Zeng Guoquan
(曾國荃), the younger brother of Zeng Guofan (曾國藩), captured the Heavenly
capital, Tianjing (天京 present day Nanjing city 南京市), the capital of
the Heavenly Kingdom. Not a single resident of about 300,000 in Tianjing
surrendered to the Qing Army. They were all slaughtered by the Qing Army.
Hong Futian fled from the capital. In August, Hong Futian was arrested and
executed in Nanchang (南昌). That was the end of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom

Zuo Zhongtang was ordered by the Qing Authority to go after the remnant
of the Taipng Army who were retreating to the south. Within a short period
the province of Fujian (福建省) was free from the Taiping Army.

In 1866AD the remnant of the Taiping Army retreated to the Hakka region
in Jia Ying Zhou (嘉應州 present day Meixian 梅縣). In January, Zuo Zongtang
besieged the remnant of the Taiping Army in the hill in Jiayingzhou. The
Taiping fought bravely and over ten thousand of them died in the subsequent
battles. Eventually, about fifty thousand of them surrendered to Zuo Zhongtang.
Thousands of them fled to Nanyang (南洋Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia).

Dr Han Suyin, the world renowned writer, writes in her book "The Crippled
Tree":

"After the Taiping failed in 1864, the Manzhous (Qing Authority 清朝) put
all men,
women and children named Hung (洪 Hong) to the sword, to extirpate the breed;
many fled, or changed their names. Because of these massacres many Hakkas
migrated to south-east Asia, or were inveigled by the boat-load to become

indentured labourers on railways and canals in the East Indies (Indonesia),
Malaya (Malaysia and Singapore), the United States, and as far as Panama,

Brazil and Africa."

中國通史 (Zhong Guo Tong Shi)
周谷城著 (By Zhou Gu Cheng)

洪秀全演義 (Hong Xiu Quan Yan Yi)
黃小配著 (By Huang Xiao Pei)

中國近代史 Zhong Guo Jin Dai Shi
李守孔 (By Li Shou Kong)
--------------------------------------


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(鄭 永 元)
chungyn
 
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