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01 太平天國 -The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom (1851 AD to to 1864 A

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01 太平天國 -The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom (1851 AD to to 1864 A

Postby chungyn » Fri Sep 01, 2017 5:27 pm

01 太平天國 -The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom (1851 AD to to 1864 AD)

In 1843, Hong Xiu Quan again attended the public examination at Guangzhou
city, the fourth time. For the fourth time he failed the examination. He
stayed at home and read the volumes of "Good words for extorting the age".
He began to preach the gospel of God to the villagers. He and his cousin
brother Feng Yun Shan
(馮雲山) learned from and worked for a Cantonese priest, Zhu Jiu Tao (朱
who had organized a society called Shangdi Jiao (上帝教) or the Society
of God. Zhu Jiu Tao died and Hong Xiu Quan was chosen the leader of the

Hong Xiu Quan and Feng Yun Shan went to preach the gospel of God, at the
village of Ci Gu (賜谷村) in Gui county (貴縣) of Guangxi province (廣西
省). They stayed with Huang Sheng Jun (黃盛均) who was a distance cousin
brother of Hong Xiu Quan. While preaching there, Hong Xiu Quan and Feng
Yun Shan founded the Bai Shangdi Hui (拜上帝會) or the Association of the
Worshippers of God. Hong Xiu Quan proclaimed that God was the Father, Jesus
was the older son of God and he was the younger son of God, the younger
brother of Jesus.

There were many Hakkas living in this region. The Hakkas migrated here from
the provinces of Guangdong (廣東省) and Fujian (福建省) during the reign
of the Emperors of Kang Xi (康熙皇帝1662AD to 1722AD) and Qian Long (乾隆
皇帝1736AD to 1795AD).

The soil in the areas, like Meizhou (梅州 the present day Mei Xian 梅縣
), Xunzhou (循州), Tingzhou (汀州) and other regions where the Hakkas lived,
was not fertile. There were lots of hills but few fields for cultivation.
There were more people but less land. Hence they wanted to leave their homes
and went looking for new fields. They went west and ended up settling in
many counties in the eastern part of Guangxi province.

Again, another wave of Hakka migration to this region occurred after the
Opium War (1840AD). Many Hakkas, living in Meizhou, Tingzhou and other areas,
lost their lands to the landlords, gentry and corrupted officials who constituted
less than one percent of the population. The Hakkas left the region and
went to live in Guangxi province. Many of them travelled by boats along
the Xi Jiang (西江) up to Cang Wu (蒼梧), Ping Nan (平南), Gui Ping (桂平
), Gui Xian (貴縣), Shi Long (石龍), Teng Xian (藤縣), Bo Bai (博白), Lu
Chuan (陸川) and other places.

In the seventh month of 1844, Feng Yun Shan went to Gui Ping and Hong Xiu
Quan went to preach in the eastern part of the province where there were
Hakkas lived. Hong Xiu Quan went preaching the gospel from a Hakka village
to another Hakka village for three years. There were a few thousand Hakka
believers joined the Association of the Worshippers of God.

In 1847, Hong Xiu Quan and his cousin brother Hong Ren Gan (洪仁玕) went
to Guangzhou to learn Christianity from an American Baptist Missionary.
to a letter dated October 6th, 1852, Canton, from the American Baptist Missionary
Rev. I J Roberts:

" ...Some time in 1846, or the year following, two Chinese gentlemen came
to my house in Canton [Guangzhou] professing a desire to be taught the Christian
religion. One of them soon returned home, but the orther continued with
us two months or more, during which time he studied the scripture and received
instruction, and maintained a blameless deportment. That one seems to be
this HUNG SAWCHUEN (Hong Xiu Quan) the chief; and the narrator was perhaps
the gentleman who came with him, but soon returned home. When the chief
first came to us he presented a paper written by himself, giving a minute
account of having received the book of which his friend speaks in his narrative;
of his being taken sick, during which he professed to see a vision, and
gave the details of what he saw, which he said confirmed him in the belief
of what he read in the book. And he told somethings in the account of his
vision which I confess I was then at a loss, and still am, to know whence
he got them without a more extensive knowledge of the scriptures. He requested
to be baptized, but left for Kwangsi [Guangxi] before we were fully satisfied
of his fitness; but what had come of him I knew not until now."

Rev. I J Roberts of the American Baptist Missionary in Guangzou gave a report
on the description of Hong Xiu Quan:
"He is a man of ordinary appearance, about five feet four or five inches
high; well built, round faced, regular featured, rather handsome, about
middle age, and gentlemanly in his manners."

In 1848, Hong Xiu Quan was arrested by the Qing Authority because his followers
were smashing statues in the temple. He was soon released.

On 11th January, 1851AD in Jin Tian village (金田村), Hong Xiu Quan gathered
a few thousands disciples of the Association of the Worshippers of God,
mostly poor peasants from the Hakkas as well as from the tribes of Miao
(苗族) and Yao
(瑤). He organized them into an army called the Taiping (Great Peace). In
order to bind together to the movement they burned their homes. Movable
goods were made common property. This kind of communism system gained the
support from the Hakkas who lived in grinding poverty. Within a short period
the movement had swelled to about ten thousand. Hong Xiu Quan proclaimed
that he was Tian Wang (天王 Heavenly King). He told his followers he was
chosen at God's command for a special mission: to destroy the demons on
earth (鋤妖鏟奸 Chu Yao Chan Jian) and establish the Kingdom of God (天國
Tian Guo). They should overthrow the present
Qing Dynasty (清朝朝) and the existing political system and create a new
social order: the Kingdom of God.

The Taiping revolutionists cut off their pigtails - a sign of enslavement
to the Manzhou (滿州) - and instead kept long hair and wrapped their heads
with a piece of red cloth. Since they let their hair grow on their foreheads,
which under the rules of the Qing Authority required to be shaven, the
Imperial government's documents call them the "Chang Tou Fa Ni Zei" (長頭
髮逆賊 or "Long Hairs Rebels"). Hong Xuan Jiao (洪宣嬌), the younger sister
of Hong Xiu Quan, organized a female army called "big foot soldiers" because
their feet were not bound. The Qing Authority called them "大腳蠻婆 or
the avage big foot women" soldiers. Hong Xuan Jiao and her subalterns went
around to unbind women's feet and the tradition of foot-binding was forbidden.


CHUNG Yoon-Ngan (鄭永元)
Posts: 8579
Joined: Sat Oct 05, 2013 12:06 am

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