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The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom (3) C

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The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom (3) C

Postby chungyn » Thu Sep 28, 2017 8:09 pm

The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom (3) C

哀哀同種血痕鮮﹐人自功成國可憐﹔
莫向金陵閑眺望﹐舊時明月冷如煙。

The above two poems were written recently by a patriot named Zhi Rang (志
攘).
In the first poem Zhi Rang is lamenting the rise and fall of the Taiping
Heavenly Kingdom (1851 to 1864). The second poem is criticising the two
Han-Chinese scholars of Zeng Guo Fan (曾國藩) and Zuo Zong Tang (左宗棠)
for helping the Manzhou-Chinese in destroying the Taiping Movement that
founded by their own kind, the Han-Chinese.

The important characters of the Taiping Movement (主要人務表)

(01) Hong Xiu Quan (洪秀全 1814 to 1864), the Heavenly King (天王)

He was born in Hua county (花縣) in Guangdong province (廣東省).
Hong Xiu Quan was a village school teacher before he founded the Taipng
Heavenly Kingdom. He took his own life by taking poison on 27th of the 4th
month in the 3rd year reign of Tong Zhi Emperor (同治皇帝), June 3, 1864.


(02) Yang Xiu Qing (楊秀清 1820 to 1856), the Eastern King (東王).

He was born in Gui Ping county (桂平縣) in Guangxi province (廣西省)
Yang Xiu Qing was a charcoal burner before he joined the Taiping Movement.
He was a co-founder of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom. He was very cocky and
arrogant toward his colleagues. Due to his proud behaviour he was disliked
by Wei Chang Hui (韋昌輝) who had him killed.

(03) Xiao Chao Gui (蕭朝貴 1820 to 1852), the Western King (西王).

He was born in Wu Xuan county (武宣縣) in Guangxi province.
He was a charcoal burner before he took part in the uprising in Jin Tian
village
(金田村). He was one of the founders of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom. He
married Hong Xuan Jiao (洪宣嬌), the younger sister of Hong Xiu Quan. He
was killed in battle in 1852.

(04) Feng Yun Shan (馮雲山 1822 to 1852), the Southern King (南王)

He was born in Hua county in Guangdong province. Feng Yun Shan was the second
cousin brother (表弟) of Hong Xiu Quan. He was a village school teacher and
took part in the uprising in Jin Tian village. He was a co-founder of the
Taiping Heavenly Kingdom. He was killed in a battle in 1852.

(05) Wei Chang Hui (韋昌輝 1823 to 1856), the Northern King (北王).

Wei Chang Hui was born in Gui Ping county in Guangxi provonce. He was a
village gentry before he took part in the Jin Tian Cun uprising. He killed
Yang Xiu Qing because he was angry with Yang's self-admiration.

(06) Shi Da Kai (石達開 1831 to 1863), the Assistant King (翼王)

Shi Da Kai was born in Gui county (貴縣) in Guangxi province. He was a wealthy
gentry before he took part in the Jin Tian Cun uprising. He was a leading
general in the Kingdom. He was so angry over the killing of Yang Xiu Qing
by Wei Chang Hui that he took his army of over 100,000 and marched westward.
His entire army was decimated by the Qing Army at the Lu Ding Bridge (瀘
定橋) over the Dadu River
(大渡河) in Sichuan province (四川省). Shi Da Kai was captured by the Qing
soldiers and later executed.

(07) Li Xiu Cheng (李秀成 1823 to 1864), the Loyal King (忠王).

He was born in Teng county (藤縣) in Guangxi province. He was a farmer before
he joined the uprising. After the fall of Jin Ling (金陵 or Tian Jing 天
京, the capital of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom) on July 19, 1864, Li Xiu
Cheng was captured by the Qing soldiers. While he was in prison he was enticed
by the Qing Authority to write his memoir. He was executed after he had
finished the writing of the story of his life.
(08) Chen Yu Cheng (陳玉成1837 to 1860), the Superior King (英王).

He was born in Teng county in Guangxi province. This young man, Chen Yu
Cheng, was a farmer before he joined the Taiping revolution. He was killed
in a battle in Yan Jin county (延津縣) in Henan province (河南省).

(09) Qian Jiang (錢江)

Qian Jiang was born in Gui An Fu (歸安府) in Zhejing province (浙江省).
He was Hong Xiu Quan's adviser and the military strategist of the Taipng
Army.

(10) Lin Qi Rong (林啟榮)

Lin Qi Rong was born in Guangxi province. He was defending the city of Jiu
Jiang (九江) in Jiangxi province (江西省). He and his men swore to defend
the city to the last man. Not a single soldier of the whole army surrendered
to the Qing Authority and they all died in defending the city.

(11) Lin Feng Xiang (林鳳翔)

Lin Feng Xiang was born in Guangxi province. He was a leading general in
the Taiping Heavently Kingdom. Since the Jin Tian village uprising he had
been holding important positions. His vanguard army captured the cities
of Wuchang (武昌), Nanjing (南京) and Yangzhou (楊州). In 1853, Lin Feng
Xiang led the northern expedition army with the intention of capturing Beijing,
the capital of the Qing Dynasty. He marched as far as to the city of Tian
Jin (天津), 125 kilometers south of Beijing. He was strainded in Tian Jin.
He and the remnant of his army were surrounded by the Qing troops in a little
hill. In desperation he committed suicide
rather than to surrender to the Qing troops.

(12) Li Kai Fang (李開芳)

Li Kai Fang was born in Wu Ming county (武鳴縣) in Guangxi province. After
the uprising in Jin Tian village he became a general in the Taiping Movement.
In 1853, he, Lin Feng Xiang and Ji Wen Yuan led the northern expedition
army to conquer the north particularly, Beijing, the capital of the Qing
Dynasty. He was wounded in a battle. Knowing the he was going to be captured
he asked one of his soldiers to kill him. From a short distance the soldier
fired two shots at him but he missed. Eventually, Li Kai Fang was captured
by the Qing general, Sheng Bao (勝保).
Li Kai Fang was sent to Beijing and was executed.

(13) Ji Wen Yuan (吉文元)

Ji Wen Yuan was born in Guangxi province and he was one of the earliest
people to join the Association of the Worshippers of God. He took part in
the uprising in Jin Tian village. He, Lin Feng Xiang and Li Kai Fang were
the commanders of the northern expedition army that marched north to conquer
the north. He was killed in a battle in Fu Cheng (阜城), south of Tiang
Jin (天津).

(14) Luo Da Wang (羅大網)

He was born in Jie Yang county (揭陽縣) in Guangdong province. Luo Da Wang
was the leader of the San He Hui (三合會 or the Triad) of Guangdong province.

In 1850, he and the members of the Triad joined Hong Xiu Quan's Taiping
Movement. He was appointed a general and he defeated the Xiang Army (湘軍
or the Hunanese Army) commanded by Zeng Guo (曾國藩). He captured the city
of Wuchang three times. He was killed in a battle in Wuhu (蕪湖) in Anhui
province
(安徽省).

(15) Zeng Guo Fan (曾國藩)

He was the commander of the Xiang Army helping the Manzhou to fight the
Taiping Army. He succeeded in destroying the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom in
1864.

CHUNG Yoon-Ngan (鄭永元)
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chungyn
 
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